Maybe I should have known this, or did know it at some time in the distant past, but ... If, in the same Windows console (TCC, CMD, PS), I run FTP.EXE ... close FTP.EXE ... run FTP.EXE again, the commands entered in the first FTP.EXE session are remembered in the second and can be recalled with Up/Down. The same goes for PowerShell and interactive NSLOOKUP.EXE sessions. So it seems that any given Windows console (regardless of who started it) has an app-specific history. Is this documented ... customizable? Does anything in the Win32 API relate to it?