Purpose:Display the contents of the specified file(s)


Format:TYPE [/A:[[-][+]rhsadecijopt] /B /I"text" /L /O:[-]adegnrstu /P /X /XS] [@file] file...


fileThe file or list of files that you want to display.
@fileA text file containing the names of the files to display, one per line (see @file lists for details).


/A: (Attribute select)/P(ause)
/I"text" (match description)/X (hex)
/L(ine numbers)/XS (hex w/spaces)


See also: HEAD, TAIL, LIST.


File Selection


Supports command dialog, attribute switches, extended wildcards, ranges, multiple file names, and include lists.


Internet: Can be used with FTP and HTTP servers, e.g.


type "http://jpsoft.com/notfound.htm"




The TYPE command displays a file. It is normally only useful for displaying text files (i.e. alphanumeric characters arranged in lines separated by CR/LF). Most text files use either ASCII or Unicode.


Executable files (.EXE ) and many data files may be unreadable when displayed with TYPE because they include non-alphanumeric characters or unusual line separators.


To display the files MEMO1 and MEMO2:


type /p memo1 memo2


You can press Ctrl-S to pause TYPE's display and then any key to continue.


To display text from the clipboard use CLIP: as the file name. CLIP: will not return any data if the clipboard does not contain text. See Redirection for more information on CLIP:.


You will probably find LIST to be more useful for displaying files on the screen. The TYPE /L command used with redirection is useful if you want to add line numbers to a file, for example:


type /l myfile > myfile.num


TYPE sets two internal variables:


%_type_filesThe number of files renamed
%_type_errorsThe number of errors


TYPE will recognize Unicode (UTF-16) files based on either a BOM or specific UTF-16 sequences at the beginning of the file. TYPE will recognize UTF-8 files based on either a BOM or UTF-8 extended characters within the first 2K of the file.


NTFS File Streams


TYPE supports file streams on NTFS drives. You can type an individual stream by specifying the stream name, for example:


type streamfile:s1


See NTFS File Streams for additional details.




/=Display the TYPE command dialog to help you set the command line options. You cannot specify any other arguments on the command line.


/A:Select only those files that have the specified attribute(s) set. See Attribute Switches for information on the attributes which can follow /A:. Do not use /A: with @file lists. See @file lists for details.


You can specify /A:= to display a dialog to help you set individual attributes.


/BIgnore bell (ASCII 7) characters.


/I"text"Select files by matching text in their descriptions. The text can include wildcards and extended wildcards. The search text must be enclosed in double quotes, and must follow the /I immediately, with no intervening spaces. You can select all filenames that have a description with /I"[?]*", or all filenames that do not have a description with /I"[]". Do not use /I with @file lists. See @file lists for details.


/LDisplay a line number preceding each line of text.


/O:...Sort the files before processing.


You may use any combination of the sorting options below. If multiple options are used, the listing will be sorted with the first sort option as the primary key, the next as the secondary key, and so on:


nSort by filename and extension, unless e is explicitly included. This is the default.
-Reverse the sort order for the next sort key
aSort names and extensions in standard ASCII order, instead of numerically when numeric substrings are included in the name or extension.
dSort by date and time (oldest first); also see /T:acw
eSort by extension
gGroup subdirectories first, then files
rReverse the sort order for all options
sSort by size
tSame as d


/PPrompt after displaying each page. Your options at the prompt are explained in detail under Page and File Prompts.


/XDisplay the file in hex.


/XSDisplay the file in hex, using spaces instead of periods for non-printable characters.